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Evidence Synthesis: Finding, appraising and synthesizing research

This guide provides an overview of evidence syntheses methods and points to resources to learn more about conducting the different steps of an evidence synthesis project.

Tools for Managing an Evidence Synthesis Project

There are a number of tools available to help you manage the various stages of an evidence synthesis project--in particular, the process of title/abstract screening, full text screening, data extraction and quality assessment. Below are a few such tools.

Rayyan: Rayyan is a free online tool that can be used for independent screening and coding of studies in a systematic review. Rayyan uses tagging and filtering to code and organize references.  Access Rayyan at this link:

SysRev: SysRev is a collaborative platform for managing the screening and data extraction phases of a systematic review, map or other knowledge synthesis project. It includes a powerful machine learning algorithm trained during the screening process and aiding in the bulk exclusion of low relevance research. SysRev provides both free and paid versions, which allow for public and private projects, respectively. Access SysRev at this link:

Covidence: Covidence is an online systematic review management tool that allows for independent title/abstract screening, full text screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment.  It is currently free. Access Covidence at this link:

Citation Management

Citation management help

Citation management can be very useful in any evidence synthesis project. There are a number of citation management tools available that are compatible with many of the databases and resources you'll use.  Zotero is a great choice for this. To learn more about Zotero and to get up and running, visit the Libraries' Zotero guide.